Our first bibliophilic virtual walking tour!

Detail from “A Plan of the City’s of London, Westminster and Borough of Southwark” (1720).
1. Detail from “A Plan of the City’s of London, Westminster and Borough of Southwark” (1720). © Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.  

We look forward to you joining us on our first bibliophilic (well, strictly speaking sphaera-philic!) walking tour, where we will be meandering through the streets of London and tracing the history of our city’s globemakers.

Our route runs across Central London from the Royal Exchange in the east, to Charing Cross in the west — a route linking together all the historic centres of civilian influence and power. 

Almost all the major globemakers were to be found along this route at one time or another — as were most of the leading figures in the map trade in general. 

We sincerely hope you enjoy this combination of videos, sound clips and images that we have to put together for the tour.

But first things first, here is an introduction from each of our three lovely tour guides:

Laurence Worms of Ash Rare Books, who used to have a shop in the Royal Exchange, where the walk begins.

Ashley Baynton-Williams, a freelance map consultant and a third-generation mapseller.

And last but not least, Tim Bryars of Bryars & Bryars, whose shop in Cecil Court, where these introductory videos were shot, lies at the other end of the walk.

The route follows the one clearly visible on our opening map, curving gently parallel to the Thames. We shall be stopping at various points along it, commencing on Cornhill beside the Royal Exchange (to the extreme right of the map), then via the Poultry into Cheapside, round to the north of St. Paul’s Cathedral through the Churchyard, on into Ludgate Street, down Ludgate Hill, along Fleet Street in the centre of the map, then into the Strand, and concluding at Charing Cross in the west.

The map was produced in 1720, exactly 300 years ago, by John Senex (1678-1740) — one of the globemakers we meet on the walk — drawn and engraved for him by Samuel Parker (fl.1715-1728), who had been apprenticed to Senex in 1710.

ROYAL EXCHANGE

Our example of engraved globe gores (2) was made by the French physicist and geographer François Demongenet, and probably produced in Venice in around 1560.  They were highly influential in the future production of globes and served as a primary model for later sixteenth-century gores.

The Royal Exchange — “the Eye of London as it was called — was once the hub of the world’s commerce and the centre of mercantile power.  Our image (3) is an Italian or Spanish engraving of the mid to late eighteenth century, displaying a stately frieze of the merchants of all nations in the foreground.

  • 2. Engraved globe gores by François Demongenet. © Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.
  • Vista de la Parte Interior de la Lonja de Londres

The first part of our route, from the Royal Exchange to St. Paul’s Cathedral away in the distance, is shown in the 1741 engraving (4) by the Swiss artist John Maurer (fl.1713-1761).

The engraving was published by John Bowles (1701-1779), whose own shop was at the Black Horse on Cornhill, and later at No. 13 Cornhill: it is not clear whether these both refer to the same shop, but No. 13 would certainly have been among the shops to the left of the image. 

CORNHILL

The old Exchange faced south on to Cornhill and here we meet the map and globemaker Robert Morden (fl.1669-1703). His address was “At the Sign of the Atlas on Cornhill” and it stood just beyond the Exchange and to the right of the image (4). Morden knew Samuel Pepys and was on cordial terms with that other seventeenth-century diarist, the brilliant scientist Robert Hooke — but his own reputation has never quite matched his formidable talent: he has been judged on the most workaday of his maps and not on his best. He said of himself that he had “lain latent under the horizon of unknown obscurity, and irresistible poverty” and hoped for “better rewards” in the next world.  He deserved them, he was among the best of his time.

Morden often worked in partnership with William Berry (1639-1718), who had premises at the other end of our route — in the Strand, and later at Craggs Court, Charing Cross. Both men had trained under Joseph Moxon (1627-1691), whom we shall meet at the foot of Ludgate Hill. We have two images (5 & 6) of a fine fourteen-inch table-globe bearing the joint Morden & Berry imprint and made in the mid-1670s.

After Morden’s death in 1703, Cornhill became the home for a time of John Senex, the maker of our opening map, whom we shall encounter again in Fleet Street. His shop here, next door to the Fleece Tavern in Cornhill, would have been to the left of Image 4. There he was in partnership with the instrument-makers Jeremiah Seller (fl.1699-1705) and Charles Price (1679?-1733). We can see that his address has been added to the foot of their trade-card (7), showing the range of instruments they made. These instruments were intended mainly for the maritime trade and Seller and Price were based primarily on the banks of the tidal Thames at Wapping, but it was no doubt advantageous to have an additional retail outlet so close to the wealthy merchants of the Exchange.

The trade-card was engraved by Robert Spofforth (fl.1700-1707), who had earlier engraved maps for Morden — but interestingly, it is almost an exact copy of the slightly earlier card of Thomas Tuttell (1673?-1702) — see (90) below.

After Seller and Price lost their contract to supply the Royal Navy with compasses (noted on the card) in 1705, Jeremiah Seller all but disappeared from the trade, but Price remained in partnership with Senex and now concentrated on maps and globes. We shall meet him again at various points along the route.

Jeremiah Seller’s father, the great mapmaker John Seller (1632-1697) also sold globes. He too was based in Wapping, but he also maintained additional premises in and around the Exchange for much of his career. It was here that he was arrested on a charge of High Treason in 1662, found guilty and sentenced to execution, but somehow survived to tell the tale — the full story can be found at: Seller, Pepys and the Seventeenth-Century London Map Trade

  • 4. Cornhill and the Royal Exchange in 1741. © The Trustees of the British Museum.
  • 5. “A New Terrestrial Globe” ca. 1675, by Robert Morden and William Berry. © Sotheby’s.
  • 6. Berry was at the Globe between York House and New Exchange on the Strand in 1672-1676. © Sotheby’s.
  • 7. Trade-card of about 1705 of Jeremiah Seller and Charles Price. © British Library Board. Maps. C. 21.b.22.
  • World map by John Seller, 1675

POULTRY

Across to the Poultry and a jump forward into the nineteenth century. Here on the south side were the premises of the interesting instrument-maker Robert Brettell Bate (1782-1847). We have a picture of his premises (9), he sold maps and globes, there is a rather good biography by Anita McConnell (11) — and he made things like the tellurian (12).  The tellurian was basically a clock, but it did more than tell the time — it explored the whole notion of time — the daily rotation of the earth on its axis, where we are in the annual orbit around the sun, the phases of the moon and so on. 

  • Bates’ shop in the Poultry. From “Tallis’s London Street Views” 1838-1840. © The Board of Trustees of the Science Museum.
  • The Poultry in 2020
  • Anita McConnell, “R B Bate of the Poultry” (1993).
  • 13. The Poultry meets Cheapside 2020.

CHEAPSIDE

Cheapside was for many years London’s principal and most fashionable shopping street, emblematic of the power and influence of retail.  Our image (14) shows how it looked in the mid-eighteenth century — the shops with their large hanging signs. Over to the right-hand side, at the Sign of the Atlas & Hercules near Friday Street, were the premises of map and globemaker Philip Lea (1660-1700) and his wife Anne Lea (1661?-1728). Friday Street no longer exists but it can be seen in our detail (15) from the magnificent wall-map of London published in 1676 by John Ogilby (1600-1676) & William Morgan (fl.1675-1690). Ogilby himself had premises along the route of the walk, both near the Royal Exchange and in Fleet Street, as did his kinsman Morgan, on Ludgate Street.  Both were buried at churches along the route — Ogilby at St. Bride and Morgan at St. Martin Ludgate.

Philip Lea was a famous mapmaker — we have an image of one of his maps at (16). He coloured maps for Samuel Pepys and advised him on sea-charts. He initially made globes in collaboration with Morden and Berry (he had been apprenticed to Morden at the age of fifteen in 1675) — and we have an image of one of their collaborations, a fourteen-inch terrestrial table-globe of about 1685 now in the National Maritime Museum (17). He later made globes in his own right and we have an image of one of his pocket globes (18) — a miniature terrestrial globe with an outer case lined with the gores of a celestial sphere. This almost uniquely English type of globe is thought to have been the invention of Joseph Moxon (see below).

After Lea died in 1700, his wife Anne continued the business for a number of years. She too worked with Morden and Berry, and after 1705 she usually worked in partnership with her son-in-law Richard Glynne (1681-1755). Glynne was a gifted instrument-maker and his output included a clock topped by a revolving celestial globe showing the phases of the moon — the globe driven by a vertical pillar and a sequence of cogs from the clock movement (19).

  • 14. A view of Cheapside in 1757 by Thomas Bowles (1701-1758) – here in a later issue from 1794.
  • Detail from Ogilby & Morgan's “A New and Accurate Map of the City of London” (1676).
  • Philip Lea map of the World.
  • Morden, Berry, Lea globe.
  • Philip Lea pocket globe.
  • A clock by Richard Glynne.

ST. PAUL’S CHURCHYARD

Our route continued on into St. Paul’s Churchyard, symbolic of continuing ecclesiastical power and influence, as well as being a famous home of the London book trade. Many maps were published here — and globes as well.

Up until a few years ago, the opticians Dollond & Aitchison were a familiar sight on every high street. It was a business founded in 1750 by Peter Dollond (1731-1820) and it made its home at No. 59 St. Paul’s Churchyard in 1766. Dollond was born in London to a Huguenot family and worked initially in partnership with his father, John Dollond (1706-1761). Subsequent partnerships were with his younger brother, also John Dollond (1746-1804), and his nephew George Huggins Dollond (1774-1852), who remained at No. 59 on into the 1850s. The premises can be seen in the north-east corner of the Churchyard, close to Cheapside, on this contemporary map (21).

The firm was always best known for optical instruments — especially telescopes — but also produced globes occasionally (23). Peter Dollond also made ingenious pantographs for resizing maps and other images — his booklet about them was published in 1766. The engraving (24) is by the local engraver Samuel Carr Harper (fl.1757-1766), who had premises in Foster Lane, running north off Cheapside, just a stone’s-throw away from the Dollonds.

  • Engraved portrait of Peter Dollond by J. Thomson, from an original painting by John Hoppner R.A. © The Trustees of the British Museum.
  • Detail from Richard Horwood, “Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster … Shewing Every House” (1792-1799).
  • 22. Lithograph by Thomas Hornor (1785-1844) of the North Side of St. Paul’s Churchyard (ca. 1820).
  • A three-inch Dollond pocket globe (1835), with its original case.
  • Illustration from Peter Dollond, “The Description and Use of the Pantographer, or Instrument for Copying Drawings” (1766).

LUDGATE STREET

Leading out of St. Paul’s Churchyard into Ludgate Street were the premises of George Willdey (1676?-1737). Unashamed in his self promotion, Willdey sold all manner of luxury goods from his “Great Toy and Print Shop. He boldly added his name, marking the the site of his shop, to this map of London (25) which he first published in 1723.

Originally from Staffordshire, Willdey was apprenticed to John Yarwell in the Spectaclemakers’ Company in 1695.  He served as Master of the Company in 1722, and again in 1733, and had premises in Ludgate Street for over thirty years. He worked for a time in partnership with Charles Price, who has already been mentioned.

In 1714, Price produced for Willdey a highly unusual map of the world (26) placing London right at the centre of the Atlantic hemisphere.  Apart from the allegorical figures representing the continents, etc., the map offers an extraordinary display of other goods offered for sale by Willdey, ranging from microscopes to snuff-boxes, watches and spectacles. 

  • Detail from “A New and Exact Plan of the City’s of London and Westminster”, first published in 1723
  • 26. Charles Price, “A New and Correct Map of the World” (1714). © Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.
  • 27. Some of the “many other usefull curiosities” which could be bought from Willdey. An advertisement engraved by H. Terrason (fl.1713-1715) and cut from Willdey’s 1714 map of North America. © The Trustees of the British Museum.

We were obviously unable to mention every single globemaker who had premises along our route — there were too many — but here in Ludgate Street we nominated John Bleuler (1756?-1829) as a representative of the lesser-known names.  Bleuler was at No. 27 Ludgate Street in the years either side of 1800. Our images show the street on a contemporary map (28); a contemporary view of the street (29), engraved by Thomas Morris from a painting by William Marlow (1740-1813); an example of a Bleuler pocket globe from 1824 (30), and one of his trade-cards (31) — the British Museum has two others in quite different designs, but both also feature globes.

  • Detail from Richard Horwood, “Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster.
  • Ludgate Street looking eastwards to St. Paul's in 1795, with St. Martin Ludgate to the left. Engraved from a painting by William Marlow (1740-1813).
  • A three-inch diameter pocket globe (1824), its case lined with celestial gores, by John Bleuler.
  • A John Bleuler trade-card of about 1800.

LUDGATE HILL

The multi-talented Joseph Moxon (1627-1691) was one of the most famous names encountered on the walk.  He was the earliest English major globemaker, as well as mapmaker, instrument-maker, printer, publisher, letter-founder, engraver, author and translator.  Having trained, probably in Holland, where his father had worked as a printer, Moxon was advertising globes in London at least as early as 1653.  With the support of Sir Isaac Newton and others, he successfully applied to be appointed Hydrographer to the King “for the making of globes, maps and sea-platts”.  His royal warrant was signed on 10th January 1662.

Pepys recorded in his diary: “Then abroad, and among other places to Moxon’s, and there bought a payre of globes cost me 3£. 10s., with which I am well pleased, I buying them principally for my wife, who has a mind to understand them, and I shall take pleasure to teach her.  But here I saw his great window in his dining room, where there is the two terrestrial hemispheres, so painted as I never saw in my life, and nobly done and to good purpose, done by his own hand” (8th September 1663).  Pepys further records Moxon making globes for the King.

A member of the Weavers’ Company, Moxon trained both Robert Morden and William Berry, with whom we began. He was granted the ultimate accolade in the scientific community when he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1678. For much of his career, Moxon had premises at the foot of Ludgate Hill, “At the Sign of Atlas near Fleet Bridge (or Fleet Ditch)” (mid-way between the premises of Morden and Berry).  The precise location is not known, but it must have been somewhere near the centre of this contemporary map (32). Moxon subsequently moved to nearby Warwick Lane, where his son James Moxon (1651?-1708), also a globemaker, continued the business. 

Moxon was particularly well-known for his pocket-globes — miniature globes in a spherical case, the case lined with celestial globe gores. These are thought to have been his own invention and they remained an almost uniquely English product — manufactured by English globemakers until well into the nineteenth century. There is a charming revolving image of one by Moxon (35 & 36) on the British Library website.

  • Detail from Ogilby & Morgan's “A New and Accurate Map of the City of London” (1676).
  • The foot of Ludgate Hill in 2020.
  • Derek A. Long, “’At the Sign of the Atlas’: The Life and Work of Joseph Moxon” (2013).
  • A Moxon three-inch globe of 1679.
  • A three-inch globe of 1679 by Joseph Moxon.

FLEET STREET

The name of Fleet Street has long been synonymous with the power of the Fourth Estate — the power of the Press — and as we passed the Inns of Court on either side, also of the might and majesty of the Law. Just beyond the church of St. Bride at the eastern end, a narrow passage called Salisbury Court opens out into Salisbury Square. Here for many years, at No. 16, was the home of the Bardin family of globemakers — William Bardin (1740?-1798), his son and successor Thomas Marriott Bardin (1768-1819), and his grand-daughter Elizabeth Marriott Bardin (1799-1851).

Our images include (38) a handsome pair of eighteen-inch table-globes on turned mahogany stands by William and Thomas Marriott Bardin: the terrestrial globe is dedicated to Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), President of the Royal Society, and its celestial companion to Neville Maskelyne (1732-1811), the Astronomer Royal. The elder Bardin died in 1798, so the gores were presumably produced before that date, although the family were still issuing updated versions with the same dedicatees until at least 1851.

Almost certainly born in Salisbury Square, Elizabeth Marriott Bardin inherited the family business at the age of twenty in 1819 and ran it for the next thirty-two years.  After her marriage in 1832 to Samuel Sabine Edkins (1791-1853), a silversmith and a neighbour in the square, his name began to appear on the globes — but she continued to be listed in directories as a globemaker under her maiden name.  She was baptised, married, and also buried at the neighbouring church of St. Bride. From her period of owning the business, we have a ten-inch Bardin terrestrial table-globe (41) dated 1843.  

  • Richard Horwood, Fleet Street
  • Bardin Globes
  • St. Bride Fleet Street - the Printers' and Journalists' Church - in 2020.
  • A Bardin Family gravestone at St. Bride, Fleet Street. © Andy Scott.
  • A ten-inch Bardin terrestrial table-globe on mahogany legs dated 1843.

For nearly fifty years from 1830 onwards, at No. 81 Fleet Street, on the west corner of Salisbury Court, were the premises of George Frederick Cruchley (1797-1880).  

Pictured below are a contemporary image of his premises (42) and an example of some twelve-inch Cruchley globes (43) from towards the end of his career in 1874. The terrestrial globe makes a point of saying that it exhibits all the latest discoveries, “in Equatorial Africa, North Pole, and the new Settlements and Divisions of Australia, New Zealand, California, Texas, &c.

  • A study of about 1855 by the local artist James Findlay of the Cruchley premises at No. 81 Fleet Street.
  • A pair of Cruchley twelve-inch globes from 1874.

Somewhere near here, close to Salisbury Court, from 1720 onwards was Thomas Wright (1692?-1767).  Appointed Mathematical Instrument-Maker to the King in 1729, he worked with others in producing globes, but was most famous for his orreries — working models of all or part of the solar system. The first picture (44) is of his “Great Orrery — a giant one made for the Royal Naval Academy established at Portsmouth in 1733 for the training of officers. Our image was engraved by Clement Lempriere (1683-1746), himself a distinguished mapmaker and military engineer, appointed Chief Draughtsman at the Tower of London in 1741.

The second image (45) is of a hand-driven Wright orrery in an inlaid mahogany case, dating from 1731. It demonstrates the diurnal and annual movements of the Earth, and the movements of the Moon, Mercury and Venus in their orbits. Its miniature globe was engraved by Wright’s neighbour and colleague Richard Cushee (1696-1733) — for whom see below. This particular example, now in the History of Science Museum at Oxford, is believed once to have belonged to Charles Boyle, Fourth Earl of Orrery, (1674-1731), author, soldier, statesman and patron of the sciences, after whom these working planetary models were named in 1713. 

  • Wright's Great Orrery — an engraving by Clement Lempriere.
  • A hand-driven orrery by Thomas Wright in an inlaid mahogany case.
  • Detail of the orrery above, showing a miniature globe engraved by Wright’s neighbour and colleague Richard Cushee (1696-1733).

Diagonally opposite Salisbury Court stands Peterborough Court — and on the west corner, at No. 136 Fleet Street, from 1782 until his retirement in 1835, was another orrery-maker — Edward Troughton (1756-1835). Our picture (47) is of a simple small orrery of about 1810, with armillary bands and an octagonal base — made to display the orbits of the Earth and Moon, etc. The little globes in the middle of the Troughton orreries were sometimes made by the Bardins across the road.  The Troughtons were one of the great families of instrument-makers — their famous precision instruments, including sextants and theodolites, were used both in the great Survey of India and in the United States Coastal Survey. 

  • Miniature orrery by Troughton, London with armillary bands and octagonal base, showing three planets including the Earth and Moon with wooden case, late 18th century to early 19th century.
  • Miniature orrery by Troughton, London with armillary bands and octagonal base, showing three planets including the Earth and Moon with wooden case, late 18th century to early 19th century.
  • Peterborough Court in 2020.

Just across the road, in the middle of Fleet Street at No. 60, two doors west of Bouverie Street, was another famous family of instrument-makers — the Adams — Instrument-Makers to the King.  The elder George Adams (1709-1772) moved to Fleet Street in the 1730s and became Instrument-Maker to the King in 1760. His elder son, the second George Adams (1750-1795), was at No. 60 throughout his career, and the younger son Dudley Adams (1762-1830) was here until at least 1817.  All three were born in the area and baptised at St. Bride — two of them are buried there. 

Our image (50) is of a pair of nine-inch table-globes in engraved brass meridian rings, produced by Dudley Adams — the terrestrial dated 1810, the celestial 1811. His trade-card (51) references the family’s original shop-sign of “Tycho Brahe’s Head”, in honour of the celebrated Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the man with the brass nose.

  • A pair of nine-inch Dudley Adams globes on later wooden stands.
  • Trade-card of Dudley Adams.
  • No. 60 Fleet Street in 2020.

Just as Dudley Adams left Fleet Street in 1817, another prominent family of globemakers arrived. On the other side of the street, in Johnson’s Court, from 1818 onwards, was the first Thomas Malby (1781-1854), who founded a dynasty including his son Thomas Malby 2 (1808-1877), and grandsons John Walter Malby (1832-1920) and Thomas Henry Malby (1828-1864). The founder of the firm died at his home in Crouch End in 1854 — it was called “Globe Cottage. The family also made the globes sold by the famous publishing house of Edward Stanford (1827-1904), whose own premises in the nineteenth century were at the Charing Cross end of our route. The Malby firm, which was employing eighty men in the 1880s, survived until at least 1920.

  • A pair of Victorian twelve-inch globes by Thomas Malby & Co., dated 1850 and 1848.
  • Entrance to Johnson's Court in 2020.

We have already met John Senex on Cornhill, but for most of his career he was in Fleet Street — for the last twenty years of his life here at the Sign of the Globe opposite St. Dunstan’s church— in one of the shops to the left of our image (55). Senex began as a bookseller and among his earliest publications, in 1705, was Edmond Halley’s “Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets” (56). He continued to work closely with Halley — a portrait of the great astronomer in the National Portrait Gallery (58) features a map they made together in 1715 (59). It predicted the forthcoming eclipse and was the first ever attempt at this type of map — showing the path of totality and the predicted timings.  It was remarkably accurate, and not wholly pure science: it was also an exercise in preventing possible panic — “so that the sudden darkness … may give no surprise to people, who would, if unadvertised, be apt to look upon it as ominous”.

Senex was a fine mapmaker — and as a globemaker, incomparably the best of his time, with examples of his work in collections across the world. When he died in 1740, his wife Mary Senex (1704?-1767) took over the business and ran it for the next fifteen years, becoming the leading globemaker in London in her own right.  She retired at the end of 1755 and went to live with her daughter in Dorset, where she died in 1767.  She owned an estate at Islington, let out for sixty guineas a year, which she left to the daughter — for her own “separate use, and for her husband never to intermeddle” with.  For more on John and Mary Senex, see John Senex (1678-1740): Bookseller, Mapmaker & Globemaker.

  • A view looking westwards down Fleet Street towards Temple Bar, drawn and engraved by John Maurer
  • Edmond Halley (1656-1742), “A Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets”
  • Halley’s Comet as it appeared in the night skies of March 1986.
  • Edmond Halley (1656-1742). Attributed to Isaac Whood, oil on canvas, ca. 1715.
  • Halley’s “A Description of the Passage of the Shadow of the Moon, over England, in the Total Eclipse of the Sun, on the 22nd day of April 1715 in the Morning” – engraved and published by Senex.
  • A pair of sixteen-inch table-globes by John Senex – the celestial globe dated 1740.
  • A painting by Richard Wilson (1714-1782) of Francis Ayscough (1701-1763), tutor to the royal children, with his charges the Prince of Wales (the future King George III) and Edward Augustus, Duke of York and Albany. A Senex globe is in the foreground.
  • "A catalogue of globes, maps, &c. made by the late John Senex, F.R.S. and continue to be sold by his widow, Mary Senex,

On exactly the same spot as the Senexes had been, a hundred years later, we find the imposing premises of George Philip (1800-1882) at No. 32 Fleet Street. A Scotsman who began as a bookseller in Liverpool, he built up a massive trade in maps and atlases — an entrepreneur who contracted out the origination of the maps and concentrated on selling them.  Our image (66) features “Philip’s 18 Inch Merchant Shippers’ Globe” published from No. 32 Fleet Street in about 1920 and showing the routes of steamships and underwater cables, etc.

  • A contemporary view of the premises of George Philip & Son at No. 32 Fleet Street.
  • The George Philip building at No. 32 Fleet Street in 2020.
  • George Philip (1800-1882) of Liverpool & London, geographical publisher, bookseller and globemaker.
  • “Philip’s 18 Inch Merchant Shippers’ Globe” ca. 1920.

Going back in time, over on the north side of Fleet Street, between St. Dunstan’s and Chancery Lane, close to Temple Bar, we discover Richard Cushee (1696-1733), whom we have already met working with Thomas Wright, the orrery maker.  A joint advertisement for their globes (67), engraved by Cushee, appeared in Joseph Harris, “The Description and Use of the Globes and the Orrery”, which they co-published in 1731-1732. Cushee had been apprenticed to Charles Price for the sum of £5 in 1710 and had also worked closely with John Senex. He died at the age of thirty-six and the business passed to his widow, Elizabeth Cushee (fl.1733-1773).  Born Elizabeth Wyeth in 1704, she was the sister of the instrument-maker and surveyor William Wyeth (1710-1741), who also worked with Wright. She was selling globes here at the Sign of the Globe & Sun, for at least thirty years. Our images include a 1730 globe by Richard Cushee (68) which can be explored in detail on the British Library website, and a pocket globe of about 1745, which although still bearing Richard Cushee’s name, must have been produced by Elizabeth.

  • A joint advertisement for globes made by Cushee and Wright.
  • “A New Globe of the Earth Laid down According to the Latest Observations” 1730, by Richard Cushee.
  • Elizabeth Cushee, “A New Globe of the Earth” ca. 1745.

STRAND

The Strand was once lined with the ducal palaces of the aristocracy, some of which were still standing in the days of the mapmaker Herman Moll (1654?-1732), whose premises between 1710 and 1732 were “over against [i.e. opposite] Devereux Court, between Temple Bar and St. Clements Church. The location can be precisely placed — Devereux Court is indicated by the number “3” on the map (72) by Moll’s contemporary Richard Blome (1635-1705), who himself worked in this area at various times. The shop would have been where the Royal Courts of Justice now stand. For an extensive study of Moll’s career, see Dennis Reinhartz, “The Cartographer and the Literati – Herman Moll and his Intellectual Circle” (1997).

Our images include a 1719 pocket globe by Moll (71) in the conventional format, the sharkskin case lined with hand-coloured celestial gores, and (74) a photograph of Temple Bar taken shortly before it was removed as a hindrance to traffic in 1878. This is the view, albeit taken over a century later, that Moll would have had of it from his shop. Designed by Sir Christopher Wren and built in 1670, the Bar marked the western limit of the jurisdiction of the City of London. It survived intact in the Hertfordshire countryside and has now been returned to Central London in Paternoster Square. We also have a curious “advertisement” (76) placed in the corner of Moll’s 1711 two-sheet map of Spain and Portugal — a bitter attack on his younger rivals in the map trade — John Senex and Charles Price are clearly intended: he labels them “cheats” and “ignorant pretenders”, which they certainly were not. Another of John Maurer’s “perspective views” (77), shows the view eastwards along the Strand as Moll would have known it.  The church of St. Clement Danes, prominent to the left, was rebuilt by Wren between 1680 and 1682.

  • Portrait dated 1723 of Herman Moll by the antiquary William Stukeley (1687-1765).
  • A 1719 pocket globe by Herman Moll.
  • Detail from Richard Blome, “A Mapp of the Parishes of St. Clements Danes, St. Mary Savoy; with the Rolls Liberty and Lincolns Inn", 1720.
  • Devereux Court in 2020.
  • Temple Bar in 1878.
  • The Temple Bar Memorial marking the original site of Temple Bar.
  • An “advertisement” placed in the corner of Moll’s 1711 two-sheet map of Spain and Portugal.
  • The view eastwards along the Strand towards Temple Bar. Drawn and engraved by John Maurer. 1753.

Somewhat earlier than Moll, in the years either side of 1600, close to the earlier church of St. Clement Danes, were the premises of the extraordinary early instrument-maker Charles Whitwell (fl.1590-1611). An engraver as well as an instrument-maker, Whitwell’s engraving of Philip Symondson (fl.1577-1598), “A New Description of Kent. Divided into the Fyve Lathes Thereof” (1596) is regarded as “the most accomplished specimen of English county cartography before the eighteenth century” (Skelton). Whitwell was apprenticed to the well-known Augustine Ryther (fl.1576-1593) in 1582. His career was short and he is known to have died before September 1611.

  • A horizontal compass sundial made of gilt brass by Charles Whitwell.
  • A terrestrial and celestial pocket globe of 1590 by Charles Whitwell.

On the south side of the Strand, between Norfolk Street and Arundel Street, was No. 181 Strand, for sixty years from 1790s the home of the Cary family — they also had No. 182 for much of that time. The brothers John Cary (1755-1835) and William Cary (1759-1825) collaborated in the manufacture of globes, and the globemaking side of the business continued in the Strand under John Cary’s sons, the younger John Cary (1791-1852) and his brother George Cary (1787-1859).

Norfolk Street disappeared in the 1970s when demolished and built over by Arundel Great Court, but we have a contemporary image of the premises (80). We also have an an image of some Cary globes (81), as well as one of the famous “A Delineation of the Strata of England and Wales, with Part of Scotland; Exhibiting the Collieries and Mines, the Marshes and Fen Lands Originally Overflowed by the Sea, and the Varieties of Soil According to the Variations in the Substrata, Illustrated by the Most Descriptive Names” (1815), compiled by William Smith (1769-1839), and engraved and published by John Cary (82) — “The Map that Changed the World” — as the title of Simon Winchester’s 2001 book about Smith has it.

  • The Cary premises at Nos. 181 and 182 Fleet Street as depicted in the supplementary series of “Tallis’s Street Views and Pictorial Directory” (1847).
  • A pair of twelve-inch globes (1800) by J. & W. Cary of the Strand.
  • William Smith, “A Delineation of the Strata of England and Wales" 1815.

Close by on the Strand once stood the Exeter Exchange (or Exeter Change, as it was generally known), built in 1680 — its arcade jutting out into the street. Originally a rather upmarket shopping mall, it slowly degenerated over time into a home of popular entertainments — but here, in and about the Exchange, in the years either side of 1720 was the instrument-maker Benjamin Scott (1687?-1752).  He was in partnership with the familiar figure of Charles Price from 1714 to 1718, “at the Atlas against Exeter Change”, where they advertised globes from three to sixteen inches in diameter — “made to the greatest perfection”.  Again, there is a 3D image of a Scott & Price globe on the British Library website.

Scott emigrated to Russia in about 1733 and made instruments and compasses for the Russian navy before becoming Instrument Maker to the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1747. For the Academy, he apparently made a globe over three metres in diameter. And as for Price — perhaps the most talented of them all, perhaps through some personality flaw — his partnerships with Jeremiah Seller, with Senex, with Willdey, and with Scott, all only lasted a few years — or perhaps he simply had no head for business — he ended up in the Fleet Prison for debt, vainly offering his maps for cut-down prices. 

  • A further detail from the Richard Blome map above (72), showing the location of Exeter Exchange, opposite the original Somerset House.
  • Exeter Change, Strand (1815) – watercolour, over an etching, by George Sidney Shepherd (1784-1862).
  • A pair of twelve-inch globes by Charles Price, dated 1715 and bearing the joint imprint of Benjamin Scott.

Farther west along the Strand, at No. 115 from 1845 onwards, we find John Betts (1803?-1889).  He was a map and atlas publisher, he made games and puzzles, and produced special maps for the Indian market — “Betts’s educational Urdũ maps. Constructed especially for the Educational Department of the Punjab Government”, etc. We have a contemporary image of his premises (87) and also one of his famous “Bett’s Patent Portable Globes” (88). It is not entirely clear when Betts first produced these ingenious globes and his patent has not been traced. The earliest mention in the press would appear to be in 1854, when a consignment of them arrived in Calcutta.

  • The premises of John Betts at No. 115 Strand, on the corner of Savoy Street.
  • Betts’s Patent Portable Globe.

CHARING CROSS

The Strand now runs on past Charing Cross Station into Trafalgar Square and both before and after these landmarks were built, the Charing Cross area, with the seat of government at Whitehall just beyond, was home to numbers of mapmakers and globemakers. Charing Cross was, in Dr. Johnson’s memorable phrase, the place where the “high tide of human existence” was to be found.

William Berry, who produced globes with Robert Morden, with whom we began, was here — and so too were Edward Mogg (1769-1851), Thomas Tuttell (1673?-1702), and the Wyld family — the elder James Wyld (1790-1836), his son, the second James Wyld (1812-1887), and grandson, James John Cooper Wyld (1845-1907) — not to mention the still-surviving Edward Stanford business, which sold globes made by the Malbys.

Edward Mogg first published this educational toy (89) in 1812, with a companion celestial globe the following year — the year in which he moved to No. 51 Charing Cross.

  • “Mogg’s Dissected Globe” 1823.
  • “Mogg’s New Plan of London” 1849

The intriguing early globemaker Thomas Tuttell (1673?-1702), Mathematical Instrument Maker and later also Hydrographer to the King, was another to be found at Charing Cross. He also had parallel premises over at the Royal Exchange, where the walk began. His shop sign, at the King’s Arms & Globe, neatly references both his royal appointments and his products. His trade-card of about 1700 (90) demonstrates the range of his wares and advertises his addresses at either end of our route. After his death by drowning in 1702, the card was copied almost exactly and used by Jeremiah Seller and Charles Price to publicise their own business (7). His fourteen-inch celestial globe (91) in the British Library is thought to be the only surviving example of a Tuttell globe —there is a 3-D revolving image of it on the British Library website. The Tuttell pack of playing cards (92) demonstrates his scientific instruments in use, in this case the level, the circumferentor, the sinical quadrant, and the sector and scales. The cards were probably engraved by John Savage (fl.1683-1701), who certainly engraved the title-card. 

  • Trade-card of about 1700 of Thomas Tuttell.
  • A fourteen-inch celestial globe of about 1700 by Thomas Tuttell.
  • Thomas Tuttell playing cards of about 1700, showing scientific instruments in use.

The Wyld business could trace its origins in the area back to 1750, the business passing in turn from the great eighteenth-century mapmaker Thomas Jefferys (1719-1771) to his successor, William Faden (1749-1836), and then, after Faden’s retirement in 1823, to his former apprentice, the elder James Wyld. All the Wylds made globes, as well as retaining their position among the leading mapmakers of their day, as Geographers to the Crown, but the younger James Wyld is remembered above all for the Monster Globe he erected in Leicester Square in 1851, the year of the Great Exhibition.

  • A map of the Charing Cross area, showing the Wyld premises at Charing Cross
  • The Wyld premises in 1843
  • A pair of 1869 twelve-inch table-globes by the younger James Wyld
  • Watercolour by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd (1793-1864) of the exterior of Wyld’s “Monster Globe” in Leicester Square.
  • Cross-section of Wyld’s Monster Globe.

The London Bibliophiles are on Twitter @uolbibliophiles

Kayleigh Betterton is on Twitter @_KBetterton and on Instagram @kayleigh_betterton_

Laurence Worms is on Twitter @LaurenceWorms and on Instagram @ashrarebooks

Tim Bryars is on Twitter @TimBryars and on Instagram @bryarsandbryars

3 comments

  1. Thank you to everyone who researched and presented virtual walking tour – such a huge amount of work and a wonderful resource for globe and map making history in London. Very interesting to learn about the number of widows who stepped forward to run businesses on the death of their partners. Will be sharing this resource, all the best.

    Like

Leave a Reply to A Family Walk — 2020 | The Bookhunter on Safari Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s